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Rural Voices: Meeting Native American Housing Needs

This issue of Rural Voices focuses on the progress being made in improving the housing conditions of Native Americans. Considerable challenges, including substandard conditions, overcrowding, insufficient funding, and persistent poverty, face Indian Country, but tribes and their housing organizations are equally persistent in working to overcome them. Rural Voices authors share what readers need to know when working with tribes, highlight innovative projects, discuss funding opportunities, and further describe challenges for a diverse population of Native American tribes across the country. The Wells Fargo Housing Foundation has provided generous support for this issue of Rural Voices, and for HAC’s other work on Native American housing needs and solutions.

VIEW FROM WASHINGTON

Building a Stronger Indian Country: The BUILD Act and Indian Housing
by Senator John Hoeven

The BUILD Act aims to improve the development of tribal housing projects and reauthorize critical Indian housing programs.

FEATURES

Creating Sustainable Homelands through Homeownership on Trust Lands
by Patrice H. Kunesh

A multifaceted approach can help leverage resources to improve housing and economic development in Indian Country.

Partnering with Tribes to Address Housing Needs
by Deana Around Him and Yvette Roubideaux

Open communication, cultural humility, and respect go a long way when working together with tribes.

Important Considerations for Working with Tribes
by Twila Martin Kekahbah

Understanding tribal governance,sovereignty, and the barriers to tribal development is critical to doing business with American Indian tribes.

Housing Solutions that Work for Native Americans
by Anthony Walters

The Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act is an important tool in meeting tribal housing needs.

Helping Native Americans Become Homeowners through Section 184
by Jeff Bowman and Tanya Krueger

This Native-owned bank has what it takes to successfully use HUD’s Section 184 program to meet tribal members’ housing needs.

Native Community Finance Serves Native Americans in New Mexico
by Marvin Ginn

Native CDFIs provide funds and services to improve Native American housing conditions.

Housing for Holistic Rez Living
by James “JC” Crawford

Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate has had major success in integrating housing and community needs.

INFOGRAPHIC

American and Alaska Native (AIAN) Communities at a Glance InfographicAmerican and Alaska Native (AIAN) Communities at a Glance


Rural Voices would like to hear what you have to say about one, or all, of these issues. Please feel free to comment on this story by sending a tweet to #RuralVoicesMag, discuss on the Rural Affordable Housing Group on LinkedIn, or on our Facebook page.

HAC News: April 28, 2017

HAC News Formats. pdf

April 28, 2017
Vol. 46, No. 9

FY17 continuing resolution extended for one week • Sonny Perdue sworn in at USDA • Trump order requires reducing federal regulations • Trump creates Agriculture and Rural Task Force • Patenaude and Rackleff nominated for HUD • HUD postpones Small Building Risk Sharing Initiative • FY17 income limits released • GAO issues report on federal programs • Annual NLIHC Advocates’ Guide published • Affordable housing manual offers tools • HAC supports Native American housing • NHLP webinar will cover rural rental housing preservation

HAC News Formats. pdf

April 28, 2017
Vol. 46, No. 9

FY17 continuing resolution extended for one week. H.J.Res 99 keeps program funding at FY16 levels through May 5, providing time for further negotiations regarding the fiscal year that ends September 30.

Sonny Perdue sworn in at USDA. Confirmed by the Senate on April 24, former Georgia governor Perdue took office as Secretary of Agriculture on April 25. A USDA statement says he will be guided by four principles. “First, he will maximize the ability of the men and women of America’s agriculture and agribusiness sector to create jobs, to produce and sell the foods and fiber that feed and clothe the world, and to reap the earned reward of their labor. . . . Second, he will prioritize customer service every day for American taxpayers and consumers. . . . Third, as Americans expect a safe and secure food supply, USDA will continue to serve in the critical role of ensuring the food we put on the table to feed our families meets the strict safety standards we’ve established. . . . And fourth, Perdue will always remember that America’s agricultural bounty comes directly from the land . . . and our responsibility is to leave it better than we found it.”

Trump creates Agriculture and Rural Task Force. An Executive Order titled “Promoting Agriculture and Rural Prosperity in America” establishes the task force, comprised of representatives from 21 agencies and headed by USDA Secretary Perdue. At a briefing a reporter asked an administration representative whether the order covered rural development, housing, and broadband. He answered: “Those things are absolutely included. I would say on the messaging point there that we do believe that in these rural communities, the best thing we can do to make them grow quickly and economically is to focus on agriculture because it is the number-one driver in most of these rural communities. But we certainly understand that’s not the only silver bullet. And so one of the things the task force is charged with doing is looking at those rural communities and also making recommendations with regard to what we can do to promote their economic stability as well.” In response, the Daily Yonder analyzed the role of agriculture in the rural economy.

Patenaude and Rackleff nominated for HUD. Pamela Hughes Patenaude, selected as HUD Deputy Secretary, is President of the J. Ronald Terwilliger Foundation for America’s Families and previously Director of the Bipartisan Policy Center Housing Commission. Neal J. Rackleff has been named HUD Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and Development. He is an attorney and the former director of Houston’s Housing and Community Development Department. Both nominees will need to be confirmed by the Senate.

HUD postpones Small Building Risk Sharing Initiative. Through the initiative, launched in 2015 (see HAC News, 7/22/15), HUD would have shared 50% of the risk for financing small multifamily properties. HUD did not implement the program. A notice announcing its “indefinite deferral” says it may not be needed “under current economic conditions.” For more information, contact Donald Billingsley, HUD, 202-402-7125.

FY17 income limits released. The median family incomes and income limits are used by HUD, USDA, and other agencies.

GAO issues report on federal programs. 2017 Annual Report: Additional Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits (GAO-17-491SP) does not add any new items on housing or homelessness. Regarding a past suggestion that Congress consider requiring HUD and USDA to examine the costs and benefits of merging similar housing programs, GAO’s online tracker states that, “According to the Office of Management and Budget, the current administration may reevaluate ongoing collaborative efforts across the different agencies, which could have implications for housing program consolidation.” A 2015 recommendation has also been added to the tracker for the first time in April 2017: “The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, in consultation with the Rental Policy Working Group, should work with states and localities to develop an approach for compiling and reporting on the collective performance of federal, state, and local rental assistance programs. Such an effort may begin with one or more pilot programs to test approaches before they are considered for wider application.”

Annual NLIHC Advocates’ Guide published. Advocates’ Guide 2017: A Primer on Federal Affordable Housing & Community Development Programs can be downloaded free, or purchased for $33 (NLIHC members) or $47 (non-members). To order more than one copy, contact Josephine Clarke, 202-662-1530 ext. 226.

Affordable housing manual offers tools. Intended for advocates, grassroots organizers, and community members, Housing for All: Western Center on Law & Poverty’s Affordable Housing Manual addresses local and HUD-mandated planning, accessing government documents, and some HUD programs. California housing planning requirements are covered as well. Some chapters, including one on fair housing assessments, will be added.

HAC supports Native American housing. An opinion piece by HAC Executive Director Moises Loza, posted April 20 by The Hill, is titled “It’s time for Congress to reauthorize, fully fund Native American housing.”

NHLP webinar will cover rural rental housing preservation. “Prepayments and Loan Maturities: Protecting Residents and Preserving RD Rental Housing” is scheduled for Tuesday, May 30 at 2:00 Eastern. It will explain how to find out whether a development is maturing or is being prepaid. It will review RD regulations, Administrative Notices, and other policies intended to preserve these developments and protect residents against displacement. It will also discuss what nonprofit and public entities can do to preserve the housing. Register here for this free 90-minute session, presented by the National Housing Law Project.

HAC News: June 29, 2016

HAC News Formats. pdf

June 29, 2016
Vol. 45, No. 12

• Non-priority low-income Section 502 funds are fully committed • Housing bill introduced in Senate • Senate hearing reviews USDA RD aid to Native Americans • HUD adopts tribal consultation policy, considers creating advisory committee • USDA RD sets this year’s voucher policies and procedures • Continuum of Care NOFA published • Housing market recovery yields to affordability challenges, says State of the Nation’s Housing 2016 • Poll shows Americans agree affordable housing needs more attention • List of nonmetro areas to receive CRA community development credit released • Data on kids shows improvements in health and education but not poverty • Webinars set to cover RD’s Limited English Proficiency guidance • HAC offers webinar on VA grant program

HAC News Formats. pdf

June 29, 2016
Vol. 45, No. 12

Non-priority low-income Section 502 funds are fully committed. RD staff tell HAC that FY16 funds for direct Section 502 loans to low-income borrowers are being pooled on June 30 and will be used on a case-by-case basis for low-income applicants purchasing program REO properties or working with Section 523 self-help grantees or intermediary packagers. Direct Section 502 funds for very low-income borrowers will be re-distributed to states, as will Section 504 repair grants. Section 504 repair loans are available to obligate in all states/territories without restrictions. All unobligated funds will be repooled August 15. RD expects to use the Section 502 direct funds for very low-income borrowers (40% of the total) by late August or early September.

Housing bill introduced in Senate. S. 3083, filed last week by a bipartisan group of Senators, is a companion to H.R. 3700, which passed the House on Feb. 2 (see HAC News, 2/3/16). Both are named “the Housing Opportunity Through Modernization Act” or HOTMA.

Senate hearing reviews USDA RD aid to Native Americans. On June 22 the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs held an oversight hearing on “Accessing USDA Rural Development Programs in Native Communities.” A witness who focused on housing praised RD’s past and current efforts, but identified tribal capacity and the amount of required documentation as barriers to better tribal use of the housing programs.

HUD adopts tribal consultation policy, considers creating advisory committee. The department is adopting without change the proposed Tribal Government-to-Government Consultation Policy published in 2015 (see HAC News, 4/29/15), outlining principles and procedures for HUD employees with regard to federally recognized Indian or Alaska Native tribes. HUD requests comments by July 25 on establishing a Tribal Intergovernmental Advisory Committee, consisting of tribal representatives, to help HUD further develop and maintain its Indian housing programs. Contact Heidi J. Frechette, HUD, 202-401-7914.

USDA RD sets this year’s voucher policies and procedures. The provisions of this notice govern the program in FY16. Section 542 vouchers are available to tenants when a property owner either prepays a Section 515 loan or USDA action results in a foreclosure after September 30, 2005. Contact Stephanie B.M. White, USDA, 202-720-1615.

Continuum of Care NOFA published. Applications for FY16 CoC funds are due September 14. Contact a local HUD CPD office.

Housing market recovery yields to affordability challenges, says State of the Nation’s Housing 2016. The Joint Center for Housing Studies’ annual study includes an interactive mapping utility and analyzes demographic drivers, rental and owner-occupied housing, and housing challenges for communities across the U.S. It examines how the strengthening market has led to affordability challenges that outstrip the availability of federal housing assistance. There are a record high 11.4 million severely cost-burdened renter households. The report also details ongoing challenges facing nonmetro and tribal areas.

Poll shows Americans agree affordable housing needs more attention. Nearly two-thirds of adults (63%) believe actions can be taken to solve problems of housing affordability. Poll respondents across political parties – 74% of Democrats, 66% of Independents, and 49% of Republicans – believe the issue has not received enough attention from the 2016 presidential candidates. The 2016 How Housing Matters Survey is the fourth annual national survey of housing attitudes commissioned by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, this year with additional support from the Kresge Foundation and the Melville Charitable Trust.

List of nonmetro areas to receive CRA community development credit released. The federal bank regulatory agencies’ 2016 list of distressed or underserved nonmetropolitan middle-income geographies, where revitalization or stabilization activities will receive Community Reinvestment Act consideration as community development, is based on local economic conditions, including unemployment, poverty, and population changes.

Data on kids shows improvements in health and education but not poverty. The 2016 Kids Count Data Book reports that nationwide, despite rising employment numbers, 22% of children lived in poverty in both 2013 and 2014, and almost one in three children live in families where no member of the household has full-time, year-round employment. In 2006-2010, 11% of children lived in high-poverty areas and now that figure is 14%. The Annie E. Casey Foundation publication offers data for every state.

Webinars set to cover RD’s Limited English Proficiency guidance. USDA RD’s Office of Civil Rights will host webinars on July 7 and 14 (each with the same content). They are open to all, and the agency particularly encourages attendance by those involved in the certified loan application packaging process and/or the self-help program. To register, email Darren.kaihlanen@wdc.usda.gov.

HAC offers webinar on VA grant program. “VA Housing Resources for Heroes Part II: An Overview on the VA Specially Adapted Housing Grant Program” will be on July 13 at 2:00 Eastern. The webinar is free but registration is required. Contact Shonterria Charleston, HAC, 404-892-4824.

Self-Help, Sweat Equity, and Success

“I’m looking forward to spending whatever days I have, God bless me, in that house.”
– Kay Panteah, Zuni Tribal Member & Homebuyer

by BC Echohawk, National American Indian Housing Council (NAIHC)

Rural Voices - Fall 2014This story appears in the Fall 2014 issue of Rural VoicesThe Zuni Pueblo sits in the far western edge of New Mexico, forty miles away from Interstate 40, the major East-West corridor through the state. Kay Panteah is a tribal member and has lived in the area her whole life. The remote location has never factored into the 54-year old’s decision to remain in the community. Her parents were born and raised there, and she continued to live and care for her aging mother in the family home along with several siblings until their growing families created a need to find a place of her own. When the Pueblo of Zuni Housing Authority advised the single-mother of four that she had qualified for a rental home through their program, she never dreamed that that move would lead to owning her own home.

Kay Panteah speaks excitedly from the offices of the Pueblo of Zuni Housing Authority (ZHA) as she joins their Mortgage Coordinator Lorelei Sanchez to discuss her journey from renter to homebuyer. Given this opportunity to share the success of programs aimed specifically at Indians in rural communities, she’s eager to tell her story. Lorelei stands by, ready to fill in program information or nudge her memory as it becomes clear that these two women have created a strong bond in what has been a 14-year quest for stability and self-sufficiency.

“I LIVE FOR MY KIDS”

Kay describes her family: Oldest son Kardie Panteah is 36, and with his wife, has four children of his own, two adopted. He lives and works in the Pueblo of Zuni as a firefighter and EMT. Having mentioned an older daughter, Kay clarifies, without hesitation or judgment, that 26-year old Danii Panteah is transgender and her “special child.” Danii pursued post-secondary education in psychology and is currently working as a retail salesclerk. Twenty-three year old daughter Kimberly Kallestewa received a certification in Business Administration through Job Corps after finishing high school. She is looking for a job and expecting a child this fall. Kay’s youngest son, Jordan, 17, is finishing his senior year at Ramah High School near the Zuni Pueblo. They have all been high achievers academically, and were all chosen to participate in the local Boys’ State, a national program (with a girls affiliate program) of the American Legion that teaches high school students about how local, state and national government works. “I live for my kids,” says Kay. “So, what I do is practically just for them.”

USDA Rural Housing Service Administrator Tony Hernandez visits with the Panteahs USDA Rural Housing Service Administrator Tony Hernandez visits with the Panteahs

It was this desire to provide a better home for her children that introduced her to affordable housing. A self-employed silversmith and retail salesclerk, Kay’s father died when she was only twelve. Her mother raised her and her siblings alone, and Kay never felt a need to leave the familiar community. She participates in the local traditional tribal and religious activities, and loves helping other families who also take part. However, she admits that times have changed, and safety has become a concern. Doors that once remained opened are now routinely locked. Young people with too much time on their hands and not enough to do roam the community well into the night. Security has stepped up and curfews have been enforced in the past few years. While these measures have helped, the community continues to change as outside media and values become more accessible and common.

In a situation not uncommon in Indian communities, Kay was living with her mother and some of her six siblings in the four-bedroom family home. She had been her mother’s primary caregiver, but as her older brother and sister’s families grew, she knew she would have to make a change. She applied to ZHA for a rental home, and in 2000 learned that she qualified for low-rental housing through them. “[T]he saddest thing was that I had to leave my mom.” says Kay. The rental home was eight miles away from her mother’s home, and she had never lived that far away. However, Kay’s children were all still living with her at this time, and knowing that the move would offer them more room made the change easier.

“I WISH I COULD…BUY A HOME”

In 2000, Kay moved with her four children into a four-bedroom home provided by ZHA. In addition to houses, ZHA also has apartment communities available to qualified low and moderate income renters. Kay was in this first house until 2010 when she moved to an adjacent home to allow for renovations to the housing authority’s inventory. During her time in the rental unit, due to some delinquency issues, it was recommended that Kay attend a financial literacy program that ZHA sponsored. This is where she met Lorelei Sanchez, ZHA’s Mortgage Coordinator and the instructor for their financial literacy classes. The women’s admiration for each other is evident as Lorelei explains that program, their meeting, and how Kay made such an impression on her, that retelling Kay’s story would lead to the Zuni program receiving the first American Indian-focused Self-Help program through the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Rural Development agency.

In explaining the financial literacy program, Lorelei notes the diverse people who attend those sessions, including renters, first-time homebuyers and members of the Zuni community whose goal is to create sound financial habits for their families. Spending and budgeting is discussed keeping in mind the reality of commitments to the traditional calendar that tribal members follow. Their year begins with the winter solstice and related celebrations. This, merged with the western calendar of holidays, can strain budgets, and attendees are taught how to prioritize and set goals and limits for their families. It was while discussing such goals, that Kay made clear her wish to own a home. The sincerity of this wish was not lost on Lorelei.

Given this opportunity to share the success of programs aimed specifically at Indians in rural communities, [Kay Panteah] is eager to tell her story

In 2011, the New Mexico Mortgage Finance Authority (NMMFA) was approached by USDA’s Rural Development program. They wanted a recommendation of a native community that might be in a position to utilize their Self-Help program. Eric Schmieder with NMMFA knew that Zuni was preparing to start a construction project and that they also had the capacity and resources needed to successfully qualify for the Self-Help funding. After Rural Development contacted the Zuni, and it was decided the housing authority would administer the program, ZHA director Michael Chavez tapped Lorelei to write the proposal. She still remembers her hesitation, as this was her first attempt at preparing a proposal. The Little Dixie Community Action Agency provided her technical assistance, however, and they recommended that Lorelei think of a client whose story she could tell. “[Kay] came to my mind just like that.” says Lorelei. Sharing Kay’s story became an important part of ZHA receiving their funding, and Lorelei admits she was amazed that they received the grant. In retelling the story she asks rhetorically, “And guess where I go knocking?” “My door,” Kay answers, and quietly repeats “My door. That was the happiest day of my life.”

“THE HOME I BUILT”

The agreement between Rural Development and the Pueblo of Zuni Housing Authority was signed in January, 2012. Lorelei helped Kay through the pre-qualification process for her new home, and the results came back positive with just a few outstanding debts. As luck would have it, the timing was in Kay’s favor, as it was tax season. Normally, she would have used her tax return for a belated Christmas for her children. This year, though, Lorelei spoke with Kay’s children and suggested they let their mother know that having a new home would be a better Christmas present. They did, and Kay agreed. Kay used that year’s refund to clear those debts, thereby allowing her to move forward with construction.

Kay Panteah and family working on homeKay Panteah and family working on home

The groundbreaking was in May 2012, what was intended to be an eight-month process took over a year to see completion. Three houses were planned in the first round of construction, with each of them to be occupied by single mothers with families who were all former renters turned homeowners. Lorelei explains that as this was a new project for ZHA, there was a learning curve they worked through that caused some delays. Additionally, as can happen when working with construction in any federally-recognized Indian community, there were leasing issues related to building on tribal land that created obstacles. This issue caused a several-month delay in building. As soon as she was allowed, however, Kay was at the work site with her family, putting in the 600 hour sweat-equity requirement on her home. While technical work such as plumbing and electricity was contracted, the remaining tasks of framing, pouring concrete, digging trenches and putting up drywall are left to the homeowner. A construction supervisor was always at one of the three construction sites, providing training and direction to the families.

The process has empowered her, and she knows the other two participants feel the same

Kay had already gotten the commitment of her children and older grandchildren that they would help with the construction, but it was still an arduous process. They worked most days, despite the weather, and despite the fact that they lived ten miles away from their new home and sometimes didn’t have gas to make it to the site. On these days, they informed the construction supervisor so that he could go to another site and assist there. Following days that they missed, they would come to the site and work longer hours to make up for lost time. The other two families who were also working on homes helped her when they could, as she helped them when needed. Once the frame was up, however, Kay knew she would finish. It was then that she could “see” her completed home.

A low-point came when Kay was laid off from her retail job. In fact, all three of the women who were participating in the program were laid off in a short time span. Fearing this would affect her participation in the program, Kay went immediately to Lorelei to let her know. While this was discouraging news for all three women, Lorelei knew they had to move forward and encouraged Kay to begin the unemployment process immediately. She did, and in doing so was motivated to press on. Fortunately for Kay, she had the traditional skill of silversmithing to fall back on. She acknowledges that having completed the physical aspect of the project and overcoming all the obstacles that delayed construction, she has gained experience in how to properly finish a project of any kind; how planning and flexibility allow one to move forward. The process has empowered her, and she knows the other two participants feel the same way. Their work together has bonded them and created lasting friendships.

“MY NEW HOME”

In her position with the housing authority, Lorelei is able to see the bigger picture: success with the Self-Help program at Zuni will show the USDA that tribal communities can also manage the program and it will allow for more housing resources in Indian Country. For her first three participants, however, the benefits will be immediate and personal. The project came in under budget, so Kay’s mortgage payment will be lower than anticipated. Renters will be home owners, rent payments are now mortgage payments and reliance becomes self-sufficiency. Lorelei knows that Kay’s journey to home ownership began with the Financial Literacy class. Her rent payment had never been her priority, but after completing the class, Kay knew what she needed to do to realize the wish of owning her own home. The class gave her perspective and hope. It laid the foundation that allowed her to see what she could achieve.

As for Kay, on July 24 she received the keys to her new home. She admits it was an emotional process with ups and downs, but she also acknowledges that there were always people there who were willing to help and who did help. She remains grateful for the opportunity to participate in the project, and having built a home, she now looks forward to starting a small business in her community. “Never give up,” says Kay. “There’s always hope on the other side.”

The National American Indian Housing Council (NAIHC): The only national, 501(c)(3) corporation representing housing interests of Native people who reside in Indian communities, Alaska Native Villages, and on native Hawaiian Home Lands. NAIHC advocates for housing opportunities and increased funding for Native Americans; provides training and technical assistance to managers and professionals from Native housing programs; and conducts research related to Native housing issues and counseling programs, as well as loan products.

The Trail of Hope for Indian Housing

The Housing Assistance Council has received the following information from the Trail of Hope for Indian Housing and would like to offer its support for decent, safe affordable housing and increased housing development resources on Native American Lands.

When: April 17, 2013
Where: Union Square, Washington, DC
Details: The Reservation house facade will be erected and displayed for the public from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm. The event will include a rally which is tentatively scheduled for midday.

The Trail of Hope House (actually two facades) will be placed at Union Square (3rd St. NW) near the Capitol and the site is open to the public from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm. We need everyone to come out to help us show Congress the extreme housing conditions on Northern Plains reservations. Let’s show Congress what “overcrowded Indian housing” looks like on their front doorstep!

A Step Toward Addressing Native American Homelessness

A Step Toward Addressing Native American Homelessness

by Eric Oberdorfer and Leslie Strauss

shelterforce_na_blog_postHomes in Indian Country are three times more likely to be crowded than those in the United States as a whole, according to the 2010 Census. Many of the people sleeping on sofas or floors in these crowded dwellings are homeless – not living outdoors or in a car, but not living in permanent homes of their own, either. Strong kinship networks often enable people to find a place to stay and there are few shelters and service providers in places with small, spread-out populations.

Read More…

Winter 1996/7 issue of Rural Voices Magazine - Cover

Rural Voices: Home Loan Bank Financing for Rural Housing

The Winter 1996-97 issue of Rural Voices highlights two important topics: how the Federal Home Loan Bank System can help in the development of affordable rural housing, and local and national efforts to address housing needs in Indian Country.

Our cover stoty explains the basics of the FHLBanks’ Affordable Housing Program and Community Investment Program, with examples of how both have been used in rural areas. Both can provide long-tmm financing for housing development at below-market rates. An interview with Bruce Morrison examines the AHP and CIP from a slightly different angle. Morrison, the Chairman of the Federal Housing Finance Board, which oversees the FHLBank System, discusses his perspective on the future of the System and of the banking industry overall.

Native American housing issues are addressed in two pieces as well. First, the director of the Tlingit-Haida Regional Housing Authority in Alaska describes how her agency modified an existing housing program to better meet the needs of Native Alaskans. Changes expected nationwide as a result of the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Detetmination Act of I996 are summarized in our “View from Washington” department.

This issue also explores a successful housing development effort in a small town in Iowa. In addition, we have included a summmy of HAC’s National Rural Housing Conforence, held in December 1996, and providing, among many other things, an opportunity to celebrate HAC’s 25th anniversary.

Reports

Housing on Native American Lands Cover

Housing on Native American Lands

Over 500 Native American tribes reside in disparate locations across the United States, and Native American lands can be found in all regions of the United States. While geographically diverse, these communities are the product of a common set of historical and political actions. Persistent poverty and inadequate housing conditions are often prevalent on many Native American Lands.